Effect of the Bolt Layout and Distance on Strength of the Composite Joints

Document Type : Original Research Paper


Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.


Considering the importance of composite connections, this study evaluated two experimental and numerical methods for bolted joints of epoxy-glass composite plates. Then, using an artificial neural network, a model was defined between experimental and numerical results. The results of this study showed that the maximum force tolerated by bolted joints was various at several distances and its maximum value was tolerated by the connection at 4cm equal to 5332 and 7093N, for two specimens. Comparison of numerical and experimental results of Von-Mises stress for distances of 2, 3, and 4cm was done. The Von-Mises stress for these distances was 313.59, 217.57, and 177.71MPa, respectively. In this research, the connection of epoxy-glass plates using M6-bolt was studied, and by increasing the coverage of two composite plates, the Von-Mises stress in the connection was raised. Concerning the determination of the stress measuring path, from the internal edge of the critical notch to the end of the defined range with a smaller mesh, the Von-Mises stress was extracted, which in distance equal to 3cm with the vertical arrangement, maximum stress was equal to 513MPa. The minimum stored energy of the numerical method in the connection was related to the bolted joint with a two-bolt in the vertical position.


 [1] T. Sinmazcelik, E. Avcu, M.Ö. Bora, O. Coban, A Review: Fiber metal laminates, background, bonding types and applied test methods, Mater. Des., 32(7) (2011) 3671-3685.
[2] W.J. Quinn, F.L. Mathews, The effect of stacking sequence on the pin-bearing strength in glass fiber reinforced plastics, J. Compos. Mater., 11(2) (1977) 139-145.
[3] C. Fu-Kuo, B.L. Larry, Damage tolerance of laminated composites containing an open hole and subjected to compressive loadings: Part I-analysis, J. Compos. Mater., 25(1) (1991) 2-43.
[4] M.L. Dano, G. Gendron, A. Picard, Stress and failure analysis of mechanically fastened joints in composite laminates, Compos. Struct., 50(3) (2000) 287-296.
[5] Th. Kermanidis, G. Labeas, K.I. Tserpes, Sp. Pantelakis, Finite element modeling of damage accumulation bolted composite joints under incremental tensile loading, European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering, Barcelona, Spain, Barcelona, 11-14 September (2000).
[6] J. Hanauska, V. Kradinov, E. Madenci, A composite double-lap joint with staggered bolts: anexperimental and analytical investigation, Compos. Struct., 54(1) (2001) 3-15.
[7] B. Okuta, Stress and failure analysis of laminated composite pinned joints, Ph.D. Thesis, School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Dokuz Eylul University, (2001).
[8] H.T. Sun, F.K. Chang, X, Qing, The response of composite joints with bolt clamping loads, Part I: Model development, J. Compos. Mater., 36(1) (2002) 47-67.
[9] H.T. Sun, F.K. Chang, X. Qing, The response of composite joints with bolt-clamping loads, Part II: Model verification, J. Compos. Mater., 36(1) (2002) 69-92.
[10] M.A. McCarthy, V.P. Lawlor, W.F. Stanley, C.T. McCarthy, Bolt-hole clearance effects and strength Criteria in single-bolt, single-lap, composite bolted joints, Compos. Sci. Technol., 62(10-11) (2002) 1415-1431.
[11] V. Kradinov, E. Madenci, D.R. Ambur, Combined in-plane and through-the thickness analysis for failure prediction of bolted composite joints, 45
th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures,  Structural Dynamics & Materials Conference, Palm Springs, California, 19-22 April (2004).
[12] C.T. McCarthy, M.A. McCarthy, V.P. Lawlor, Progressive damage analysis of multi-bolt composite joints with variable bolt-hole clearances, J. Compos. B., 36(4) (2005) 290-305.
[13] M.A. McCarthy, C.T. McCarthy, G.S. Padhi, A simple method for determining the effects of bolt-hole clearance on load distribution in single-column multi-bolt composite joints, Compos. Struct., 73(1) (2005) 78-87.
[14] M.A. McCarthy, C.T. McCarthy, V.P. Lawlor, W.F. Stanley, Three-dimensional finite element analysis of single-bolt, single-lap composite bolted joints, part I: model development and validation, Compos. Struct., 71(2) (2005) 140-158.
[15] M.H. Song, J.H. Kweon, S.K. Kim, C. Kim, T.J. Lee, S.M. Choi, M.S. Seong, An experimental study on the failure of carbon/epoxy single lap riveted joints after thermal exposure, Compos. Struct., 86 (1-3) (2008) 125-134.
[16] S.K. Panigrahi, B. Pradhan, Onset and growth of adhesion failure and delamination induced damages in the double lap joint of laminated FRP composites, Compos. Struct., 85(4) (2009) 326-336.
[17] K.I. Tserpes, G. Labeas, P. Papanikosb, Th. Kermanidis, Strength prediction of bolted joints in graphite/epoxy composite laminates, Compos. B., 33(7) (2002) 521-529.
[18] R. Karakuzu, C.R. Caliskan, M. Aktas, B.M. Icten, Failure behavior of laminated composite plates with two serial pin-loaded holes, Compos. Struct., 82(2) (2008) 225-234.
[19] V. Yavari, I. Rajabi, F. Daneshvar, M.H. Kadivar, On the stress distribution around the hole in mechanically fastened Joints, Mech. Res. Commun., 36(3) (2009) 373-380.
[20] S. Kapti, O. Sayman, M. Ozen, S. Benli, Experimental and numerical failure analysis of carbon/epoxy laminated composite joints under different conditions, Mater. Des., 31(10) (2010) 4933-4942.
[21] H.E.M. Sallam, A.E.A. El-Sisi, E.B. Matar, O.M. El-Hussieny, Effect of clamping force and friction coefficient on stress intensity factor of cracked lapped joints, Eng. Fail. Anal., 18(6) (2011) 1550-1558.
[22] X.D. Liu, Y.Z. Li, Z.H. Yao, H. Shu, Study on the pin-load distribution of multiple-bolted composite to metal joints, Key Eng. Mater., 525-526 (2012) 285-288. 

[23] A.E.A. El-Sisi, H.A. Salim, O. M. El-Hussieny, H.E.M. Sallam, Behaviors of a cracked lapped joint under mixed-mode loading, Eng. Fail. Anal., 36 (2014) 134-146.
[24] A.E.A. El-Sisi, H.M. El-Emam, H.A. Salim, H.E.M. Sallam, Efficient 3D modeling of damage in composite materials, J. Compos. Mater., 49(7) (2015) 817-828.
[25] M. Atta, A.A. Abd-Elhady, A. Abu-Sinna, H.E.M. Sallam, Prediction of failure stages for double lap joints using finite element analysis and artificial neural networks, Eng. Fail. Anal., 97 (2019) 242-257.
[26] A.A. Abd-Elhady, H.E.M. Sallam, Crack sensitivity of bolted metallic and polymeric joints, Eng. Fract. Mech., 147 (2015) 55-71.
[27] N. Aleksandrova, Engineering stress solutions for bolted and pressurized steel structures, Structures, 1 (2015) 60-66.
[28] A. Abu-Sinna, A.A. Abd-Elhady, M. Atta, H.E.M. Sallam, the failure stages of bolted double-lap metallic joints: an experimental study, J. Braz. Soc. Mech. Sci. Eng., 40(8) (2018) 388.
[29] A. Ataei, M.A. Bradford, X. Liu, Experimental study of flush end-plate beam-to-column composite joints with precast slabs and deconstructable bolted shear connectors, Structures, 7 (2016) 43-58.
[30] A. Anas, S. Guezouli, M. Couchaux, Componentbased model versus stress-resultant plasticity modelling of bolted end-plate connection: numerical implementation, Structures, 11 (2017) 164-177.
[31] L. Zhao, M. Shan, F. Liu, J. Zhang, A probabilistic model for strength analysis of composite double-lap and single-bolt joints, Compos. Struct., 161 (2017) 419-427.
[32] J. Wang, J. Wang, H. Wang, Seismic behavior of blind bolted CFST frames with semi-rigid connections, Structures, 9 (2017) 91-104.
[33] N. Konkong, K. Phuvoravan, An analytical method for determining the load distribution of single-column multi bolt connection, Adv. Civ. Eng., 2017 (2017) 1912724.
[34] A.E.D. El-Sisi, H.E.D. Sallam, H.A. Salim, O.M. El-Husseiny, Structural behavior of hybrid CFRP/steel bolted staggered joints, Constr. Build. Mater., 190 (2018) 1192-1207.
[35] G.Tang, L. Yin, Z. Li, Y. Li, L. You, Structural behaviors of bolted connections using laminated bamboo and steel plates, Structures, 20 (2019) 324-339.
[36] A.A. Abd-Elhady, A. Abu-Sinna, M. Atta, H.E.M. Sallam, Identification of damage stages in bolted metallic joints for different joint geometries and tightening torque using statistical analysis, Adv. Struct. Eng., 23(5) (2020) 911-923.
[37] L. F. M. Da Silva, A. Ochsner, R.D. Adams, Handbook of Adhesion Technology, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2011).
[38] ASTM D5961 / D5961M-05, Standard Test Method for Bearing Response of Polymer Matrix Composite Laminates, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA (2005).
[39] P.P. Camanho, S. Bowron, F.L. Matthews, Failure mechanisms in bolted CFRP, J. Reinf. Plast. Compos., 17(3) (1998) 205-233.
[40] U.A. Khashaba, H.E.M. Sallam, A.E. AlShorbagy, M.A. Seif, Effect of washer size and tightening Torque on the performance of bolted joints in composite structures, Compos. Struct., 73 (3) (2006) 310-317.
[41] B. Vangrimde, R. Boukhili, Bearing stiffness of glass fiber-reinforced polyester: influence of coupon geometry and laminate properties, Compos. Struct., 58(1) (2002) 57-73.
[42] A.A. Abd-Elhady, M.A. Mubaraki, H.E.M. Sallam, Progressive failure prediction of pinned joint in quasi-isotropic laminates used in pipelines, Lat. Am. J. Solids Struct., 15(6) (2018) e96.
[43] J. Hassan, T. Feser, R.M. O’Higgins, M. Waimer, C.T. McCarthy, N. Toso, M.E. Byrne, M.A. McCarthy, Energy absorption capability of composite bolted joints undergoing extended bearing failure, Compos. Struct., 237 (2020) 111868.
[44] B. Carcaterra, G. Ngaile, Investigation of energy storage in bolted joint components and the development of a geometry selection design tool for Belleville washers, Eng. Struct., 178 (2019) 436-443.