Design and Simulation of a Laser Measurement Technique in Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar Test

Document Type : Original Research Paper


School of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran.


The Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) is a commonly used technique to measure the stress-strain behavior of materials at high strain rates. Using Utilizing the strain records signals recorded in the input and output bars, the average stress, -strain and strain rate in the sample can be calculatedis determined by the one-dimensional wave propagation equations of SHPB formulas based on the one-dimensional wave propagation theory. The accuracy of a SHPB test is based on this assumption as well as dynamic equilibrium. In this paperarticlework, the possibility feasibility of using a laser measuring system to obtain the dynamic properties of a wide range ofvarious materials using split Hopkinson pressure bar without strain gages is studied. In this method which is a non-contact one, the displacements of bar/sample interfaces are measured directly using a laser extensometer technique. After designing a proper set of optical elements, the operation of the method is evaluated using numerical simulation in ABAQUS/Explicit. Cast iron, aluminum and polypropylene samples, which represent the properties of hard to soft, respectively, were studied to evaluate the proposed measurement method for different materials. The comparison with other strain gage methods shows good agreement and lower fluctuation in stress-strain curves. Moreover, since the one-dimensional wave propagation is not used in this method, we show by numerical simulation that the proposed method can be used even with shorter pressure bars which can reduce the cost of manufacturing and maintaining the SHPB apparatus. 


[1] G.H. Majzoobi, K. Rahmani, A. Atrian, An experimental investigation into wear resistance of MgSiC nanocomposite produced at high rate of compaction, J. Stress Anal., 3(1) (2018) 35-45.
[2] G.T. Gray III, Classic Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar Testing, ASM Handbook, 8 (2000) 462-476.
[3] W. Chen, F. Lu, D.J. Frew, M.J. Forrestal, Dynamic compression testing of soft materials, J. Appl. Mech., 69(3) (2002) 214-223.
[4] W. Chen, F. Lu, B. Zhou, A quartz-crystalembedded split Hopkinson pressure bar for soft materials, Exp. Mech., 40(1) (2000) 1-6.
[5] W. Chen, B. Zhang, M.J. Forrestal, A split Hopkinson bar technique for low-impedance materials, Exp. Mech., 39(2) (1999) 81-85.
[6] D. Van Nuffel, J. Peirs, I. De Baere, P. Verleysen, J. Degrieck, W. Van Paepegem, Calibration of dynamic piezoelectric force transducers using the hopkinson bar technique. 15th International Conference on Experimental Mechanics (ICEM15-2012), INEGI-Instituto de Engenharia Mecânica e Gestão Industrial, Porto/Portugal, 22-27 July (2012)
[7] R. Chen, S. Huang, K. Xia, A modified Kolsky bar system for testing ultra-soft materials under intermediate strain rates, In: T. Proulx, (eds) Dynamic Behavior of Materials, Vol. 1. Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series. Springer, New York, NY. 7-10 June (2011) 431-437.
[8] G. Gao, S. Huang, K. Xia, Z. Li, Application of digital image correlation (DIC) in dynamic notched semi-circular bend (NSCB) tests, Exp. Mech., 55(1) (2015) 95-104.
[9] Y. Li, K.T. Ramesh, An optical technique for measurement of material properties in the tension Kolsky bar, Int. J. Impact Eng., 34(4) (2007) 784-798.
[10] X. Nie, B. Song, C.M. Loeffler, A novel splittingbeam laser extensometer technique for Kolsky tension bar experiment, J. Dyn. Behav. Mater., 1(1) (2015) 70-74.
[11] R. Panowicz, J. Janiszewski, M. Traczyk, Strainmeasuring accuracy with splitting-beam laser extensometer technique at split Hopkinson compression bar experiment, Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci. Tech. Sci., 65(2) (2017) 163-169.
[12] B.S. Joyce, M. Dennis, J. Dodson, J. Wolfson, Characterization of a laser extensometer for split Hopkinson pressure bar experiments, Exp. Mech., 57(8) (2017) 1265-1273.
[13] H. Fu, X.R. Tang, J.L. Li, D.W. Tan, An experimental technique of split Hopkinson pressure bar using fiber micro-displacement interferometer system for any reflector, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 85(4) (2014) 045120.
[14] S. Yang, Z. Gao, H. Ruan, C. Gao, X. Wang, X. Sun, X. Wen, Non-contact and real-time measurement of kolsky bar with temporal speckle interferometry, Appl. Sci., 8(5) (2018) 808.
[15] G. Majzoobi, K. Rahmani, S. Lahmi, Determination of length to diameter ratio of the bars in torsional split Hopkinson bar, Meas., 143 (2019) 144-154.
[16] R. Naghdabadi, M.J. Ashrafi, J. Arghavani, Experimental and numerical investigation of pulseshaped split Hopkinson pressure bar test, Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 539 (2012) 285-293.
[17] H. Chouhan, N. Asija, S.A. Gebremeskel, N. Bhatnagar, Effect of specimen thickness on high strain rate properties of kevlar/polypropylene composite, Procedia Eng., 173 (2017) 694-701.
[18] X. Fan, T. Suo, Q. Sun, T. Wang, Dynamic mechanical behavior of 6061 al alloy at elevated temperatures and different strain rates, Acta Mech. Solida Sin., 26(2) (2013) 111-120.
[19] A. Bagher Shemirani, R. Naghdabadi, M.J. Ashrafi, Experimental and numerical study on choosing proper pulse shapers for testing concrete specimens by split Hopkinson pressure bar apparatus, Constr. Build. Mater., 125 (2016) 326-336.