Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Hydromechanical Deep Drawing of a Bilayer Conical Cup

Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Mechanical Engineering Department, Arak University of Technology, Arak, Iran.

2 Mechanical Engineering Department, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Lavizan, Tehran, Iran.


In hydromechanical deep drawing process, a space of liquid replaces the matrix and the final shape of part is established based on the form of stiff punch. The application of hydroforming process is forming complex parts with higher quality than traditional forming methods. The advantages of multi-layer sheets are using different material characteristics, achieve higher strength and consequently get better forming condition. Forming of poor formable light-weight metals like aluminum alloys is difficult, which can be made easy with using hydroforming process. Having suitable range of the effective parameters of the process is important and can help to form parts with higher quality. In this research, the hydromechanical deep drawing of the two-layer bimetallic Copper/Aluminum 3003 with conical shape was studied using the finite element method (FEM) and the effect of different parameters of the process such as final pressure, friction coefficient, pre-bulging pressure, and pre-bulging height on maximum thickness reduction and thickness distribution were inspected. The results showed that increasing of the friction between blank and die or blank and blank-holder increases the thinning ratio, while by increasing of the friction between blank and punch, the maximum ratio of thickness reduction declined. In addition, optimum range of the pre-bulging pressure and pre-bulging height of this case study was extracted by numerical simulations. A study was also carried out using experimental setup for verifying the FEM results. By comparison of experimental and numerical results, good reliability was seen between them.


[1] M. Alizad-Kamrana, M. Hoseinpour Gollo, A. Hashemi, S.M.H. Seyedkashi, Determination of critical pressure in analyzing of rupture instability for hydromechanical deep drawing using advanced yield criterion, Arch. Civ. Mech. Eng., 18(1) (2018) 103-113.
[2] L. Lou, Zh. Jiang, D. Wei, X. Wang, C. Zhou, Q. Huang, Micro-hydromechanical deep drawing of metal cups with hydraulic pressure effects, Front. Mech. Eng., 13(1) (2018) 66-73.
[3] E. Öztürk, M. Türköz, H. S. Halkacı, M. Koç, Determination of optimal loading profiles in hydromechanical deep drawing process using integrated adaptive finite element analysis and fuzzy control approach, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Tech., 88(9-12) (2017) 2443-2459.
[4] M.H. Parsa, K. Yamaguchi and N. Takakura, Redrawing analysis of aluminum-stainless-steel laminated sheet using FEM simulations and experiments, Int. J. Mech. Sci., 43(10) (2001) 2331-2347.
[5] A. Atrian, F. Fereshteh-Saniee, Deep drawing process of steel/brass laminated sheets, Compos. Part B: Eng., 47 (2013) 75-81.
[6] L. Lang, J. Danckert and K. B. Nielsen, Multi-layer sheet hydroforming: Experimental and numerical investigation into the very thin layer in the middle, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 170(3) (2005) 524-535.
[7] R. Zafar, L. Lihui, Z. Rongjing, Analysis of hydromechanical deep drawing and the effects of cavity pressure on quality of simultaneously formed threelayer AL alloy parts, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 80(9-12) (2015) 2117-2128.
[8] T. Khandeparkarm, M. Liewald, Hydromechanical deep drawing of cups with stepped geometries, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 202(1-3) (2008) 246-254.
[9] S.H. Zhang, L.H. Lang, D.C. Kang, J. Danckert, K.B. Nielsen, Hydromechanical deep-drawing of aluminum parabolic workpieces-experiments and numerical simulation, Int. J. Mach. Tool. Manuf., 40(10) (2000) 1479-1492.
[10] S. Bagherzadeh, B. Mollaei-Dariani, K. Malekzadeh, Theoretical study on hydromechanical deep drawing process of bimetallic sheets and experimental observations, J. Mater. Proc. Tech., 212(9) (2012) 1840-1849.
[11] A. Hashemi, M. Hoseinpour Gollo, S.M. Hossein Seyedkashi, Bimetal cup hydroforming of Al/St and Cu/St composites: Adaptive finite element analysis and experimental study, J. Mech. Sci. Tech., 30(5) (2016) 2217-2224.
[12] Y. Aue-U-Lan, G. Ngaile, T. Altan, Optimizing tube hydroforming using process simulation and experimental verification, J. Mater. Proc. Tech., 146(1) (2004) 137-143.